The science of nutrition / Janice L. Thompson, Melinda M. Manore, Linda A. . The Science of Nutrition, second edition, began with the conviction that both. Get Free Read & Download Files The Science Of Nutrition 3rd Edition PDF. THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION 3RD EDITION. Download: The Science Of Nutrition. Get Free Read & Download Files Science Of Nutrition 3rd Edition PDF. SCIENCE OF NUTRITION 3RD EDITION. Download: Science Of Nutrition 3rd Edition.
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Vitamins, minerals, fiber, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides glucose, fructose and galactose to complex polysaccharides starch. Fats are triglycerides , made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to a glycerol backbone.
Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids , some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.
Some of the amino acids are convertible with the expenditure of energy to glucose and can be used for energy production, just as ordinary glucose, in a process known as gluconeogenesis. By breaking down existing protein, the carbon skeleton of the various amino acids can be metabolized to intermediates in cellular respiration; the remaining ammonia is discarded primarily as urea in urine.
Main article: Carbohydrate Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides , disaccharides , or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer sugar units they contain. They constitute a large part of foods such as rice , noodles , bread , and other grain -based products, also potatoes , yams, beans, fruits, fruit juices and vegetables.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units. Traditionally, simple carbohydrates are believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore to raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate. Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories kilocalories of energy per gram. However, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer which is indigestible as humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.
There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber. Whole grains, fruits especially plums , prunes , and figs , and vegetables are good sources of dietary fiber. There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet. Dietary fiber helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.
Insoluble fiber, found in whole wheat flour , nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis — the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines, which move digest along the digestive tract. Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that slows the movement of food through the intestines. This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fiber, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
The link between increased fiber consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain. Main article: Fat A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms , bonded to a glycerol. They are typically found as triglycerides three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone.
Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded , so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.
Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated one double-bond or polyunsaturated many double-bonds. Furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.
Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called partial hydrogenation.
Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Science of nutrition 3rd edition thompson test bank 1. A Calories. B color. C value. D variety. D Page Ref: Remembering Learning Obj.: A B C D A Page Ref: This statement is an example of which of the factors to consider in planning diets?
Understanding Learning Obj.: A restriction.
B balance. C moderation. B Page Ref: However, he only manages to consume approximately 1, kcal a day. Which of the four characteristics of a healthful diet is Gabriel not meeting?
A adequacy B moderation C variety D balance Answer: Even though she always prepares meals that offer enough Calories and nutrients for her family of four, she often tends to make the same meals. Which characteristic of a healthy diet is Eve not incorporating into her meal planning?
A adequacy B balance C moderation D variety Answer: A milk and spices B spices, coffee, and fresh produce C meat and coffee D spices and meat Answer: A a health claim B the ingredient list C the name and address of the vendor D the net contents of package Answer: A Nutrition Facts Panel. B Percent Daily Values. C Daily Reference Value. D Reference Daily Intake. What is the percentage of Calories from fat in this product? Applying Learning Obj.: Based on this information which of the following statements is correct?
A This product is high in calcium.
B This product is high in vitamin C. C This product is low in fat. D This product is low in calcium. A nutrient and health claims B health and beauty claims C growth and energy claims D energy and nutrient claims Answer: A very low sodium. B low sodium. C reduced sodium. D light in sodium. A fiber B saturated fats C complex carbohydrates D fruits Answer: A ten B five C three D eight Answer: C Page Ref: A the DRIs. B the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid.
C a weight-loss diet plan. D specific activity recommendations. A the risk of kidney disease. B risk for serious health and social problems. C nervous system stimulation. D reflex time. A sodium. B carbohydrates. C diet soda. D cigarettes. A two B four C six D five Answer: A dairy foods B vegetables C fruits D protein foods Answer: A dietary supplements. B nutrient-dense foods. C energy drinks. D foods with high water content. A Choose a number of different foods within any given food group rather than the same old thing.
B Consume a variety of foods from the major food groups every day. C Plan your entire day's diet so that you juggle nutrient sources. D Consume foods that have the most nutrients for their Calories. A 2 cups of strawberry Lifesavers kcal B 1 cup of strawberry Lifesavers kcal C 8 fluid ounces of berry-flavored soda kcal D 1 cup of fresh strawberries kcal Answer: Analyzing Learning Obj.: A meats B fruits C grains D dairy Answer: A whole grains B enriched white bread C rice D pasta Answer: A provide energy only in short spurts.
C cause you to gain weight. D come from naturally-occurring sugars found in fruits and other sweet foods. A they assume that everyone eats the same foods in the same ways.